Local Features

Comparisons of local features

BRIEF descriptor

BRIEF = Binary Robust Independent Elementary Features

The original idea was presented in this ECCV 2010 paper by Calonder et al. from CVLab, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

In OpenCV you will find the actual descriptor computation code in

  • \modules\features2d\src\brief.cpp:
void BriefDescriptorExtractor::computeImpl(const Mat& image, std::vector<KeyPoint>& keypoints, Mat& descriptors) const
{
    // Construct integral image for fast smoothing (box filter)
    Mat sum;
 
    Mat grayImage = image;
    if( image.type() != CV_8U ) cvtColor( image, grayImage, CV_BGR2GRAY );
 
    ///TODO allow the user to pass in a precomputed integral image
    //if(image.type() == CV_32S)
    //  sum = image;
    //else
 
    integral( grayImage, sum, CV_32S);
 
    //Remove keypoints very close to the border
    KeyPointsFilter::runByImageBorder(keypoints, image.size(), PATCH_SIZE/2 + KERNEL_SIZE/2);
 
    descriptors = Mat::zeros((int)keypoints.size(), bytes_, CV_8U);
    test_fn_(sum, keypoints, descriptors);
}

and the actual hard-wired comparisons in

  • \modules\features2d\src\generated_16.i
  • \modules\features2d\src\generated_32.i
  • \modules\features2d\src\generated_64.i

depending on the descriptor size you use (16,32 or 64)

E.g. generated_16.i:

// Code generated with '$ scripts/generate_code.py src/test_pairs.txt 16'
#define SMOOTHED(y,x) smoothedSum(sum, pt, y, x)
    desc[0] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(-2, -1) < SMOOTHED(7, -1)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-14, -1) < SMOOTHED(-3, 3)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(1, -2) < SMOOTHED(11, 2)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(1, 6) < SMOOTHED(-10, -7)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(13, 2) < SMOOTHED(-1, 0)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-14, 5) < SMOOTHED(5, -3)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-2, 8) < SMOOTHED(2, 4)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-11, 8) < SMOOTHED(-15, 5)) << 0));
    desc[1] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(-6, -23) < SMOOTHED(8, -9)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-12, 6) < SMOOTHED(-10, 8)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-3, -1) < SMOOTHED(8, 1)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(3, 6) < SMOOTHED(5, 6)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(-7, -6) < SMOOTHED(5, -5)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(22, -2) < SMOOTHED(-11, -8)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(14, 7) < SMOOTHED(8, 5)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-1, 14) < SMOOTHED(-5, -14)) << 0));
    desc[2] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(-14, 9) < SMOOTHED(2, 0)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(7, -3) < SMOOTHED(22, 6)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-6, 6) < SMOOTHED(-8, -5)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(-5, 9) < SMOOTHED(7, -1)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(-3, -7) < SMOOTHED(-10, -18)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(4, -5) < SMOOTHED(0, 11)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(2, 3) < SMOOTHED(9, 10)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-10, 3) < SMOOTHED(4, 9)) << 0));
    desc[3] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(0, 12) < SMOOTHED(-3, 19)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(1, 15) < SMOOTHED(-11, -5)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(14, -1) < SMOOTHED(7, 8)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(7, -23) < SMOOTHED(-5, 5)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(0, -6) < SMOOTHED(-10, 17)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(13, -4) < SMOOTHED(-3, -4)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-12, 1) < SMOOTHED(-12, 2)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(0, 8) < SMOOTHED(3, 22)) << 0));
    desc[4] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(-13, 13) < SMOOTHED(3, -1)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-16, 17) < SMOOTHED(6, 10)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(7, 15) < SMOOTHED(-5, 0)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(2, -12) < SMOOTHED(19, -2)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(3, -6) < SMOOTHED(-4, -15)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(8, 3) < SMOOTHED(0, 14)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(4, -11) < SMOOTHED(5, 5)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(11, -7) < SMOOTHED(7, 1)) << 0));
    desc[5] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(6, 12) < SMOOTHED(21, 3)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-3, 2) < SMOOTHED(14, 1)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(5, 1) < SMOOTHED(-5, 11)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(3, -17) < SMOOTHED(-6, 2)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(6, 8) < SMOOTHED(5, -10)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-14, -2) < SMOOTHED(0, 4)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(5, -7) < SMOOTHED(-6, 5)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(10, 4) < SMOOTHED(4, -7)) << 0));
    desc[6] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(22, 0) < SMOOTHED(7, -18)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-1, -3) < SMOOTHED(0, 18)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-4, 22) < SMOOTHED(-5, 3)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(1, -7) < SMOOTHED(2, -3)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(19, -20) < SMOOTHED(17, -2)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(3, -10) < SMOOTHED(-8, 24)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-5, -14) < SMOOTHED(7, 5)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-2, 12) < SMOOTHED(-4, -15)) << 0));
    desc[7] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(4, 12) < SMOOTHED(0, -19)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(20, 13) < SMOOTHED(3, 5)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-8, -12) < SMOOTHED(5, 0)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(-5, 6) < SMOOTHED(-7, -11)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(6, -11) < SMOOTHED(-3, -22)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(15, 4) < SMOOTHED(10, 1)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-7, -4) < SMOOTHED(15, -6)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(5, 10) < SMOOTHED(0, 24)) << 0));
    desc[8] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(3, 6) < SMOOTHED(22, -2)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-13, 14) < SMOOTHED(4, -4)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-13, 8) < SMOOTHED(-18, -22)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(-1, -1) < SMOOTHED(-7, 3)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(-19, -12) < SMOOTHED(4, 3)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(8, 10) < SMOOTHED(13, -2)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-6, -1) < SMOOTHED(-6, -5)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(2, -21) < SMOOTHED(-3, 2)) << 0));
    desc[9] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(4, -7) < SMOOTHED(0, 16)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-6, -5) < SMOOTHED(-12, -1)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(1, -1) < SMOOTHED(9, 18)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(-7, 10) < SMOOTHED(-11, 6)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(4, 3) < SMOOTHED(19, -7)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-18, 5) < SMOOTHED(-4, 5)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(4, 0) < SMOOTHED(-20, 4)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(7, -11) < SMOOTHED(18, 12)) << 0));
    desc[10] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(-20, 17) < SMOOTHED(-18, 7)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(2, 15) < SMOOTHED(19, -11)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-18, 6) < SMOOTHED(-7, 3)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(-4, 1) < SMOOTHED(-14, 13)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(17, 3) < SMOOTHED(2, -8)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-7, 2) < SMOOTHED(1, 6)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(17, -9) < SMOOTHED(-2, 8)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-8, -6) < SMOOTHED(-1, 12)) << 0));
    desc[11] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(-2, 4) < SMOOTHED(-1, 6)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-2, 7) < SMOOTHED(6, 8)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-8, -1) < SMOOTHED(-7, -9)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(8, -9) < SMOOTHED(15, 0)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(0, 22) < SMOOTHED(-4, -15)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-14, -1) < SMOOTHED(3, -2)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-7, -4) < SMOOTHED(17, -7)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-8, -2) < SMOOTHED(9, -4)) << 0));
    desc[12] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(5, -7) < SMOOTHED(7, 7)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-5, 13) < SMOOTHED(-8, 11)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(11, -4) < SMOOTHED(0, 8)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(5, -11) < SMOOTHED(-9, -6)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(2, -6) < SMOOTHED(3, -20)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-6, 2) < SMOOTHED(6, 10)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-6, -6) < SMOOTHED(-15, 7)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-6, -3) < SMOOTHED(2, 1)) << 0));
    desc[13] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(11, 0) < SMOOTHED(-3, 2)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(7, -12) < SMOOTHED(14, 5)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(0, -7) < SMOOTHED(-1, -1)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(-16, 0) < SMOOTHED(6, 8)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(22, 11) < SMOOTHED(0, -3)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(19, 0) < SMOOTHED(5, -17)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(-23, -14) < SMOOTHED(-13, -19)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-8, 10) < SMOOTHED(-11, -2)) << 0));
    desc[14] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(-11, 6) < SMOOTHED(-10, 13)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(1, -7) < SMOOTHED(14, 0)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-12, 1) < SMOOTHED(-5, -5)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(4, 7) < SMOOTHED(8, -1)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(-1, -5) < SMOOTHED(15, 2)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-3, -1) < SMOOTHED(7, -10)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(3, -6) < SMOOTHED(10, -18)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(-7, -13) < SMOOTHED(-13, 10)) << 0));
    desc[15] = (uchar)(((SMOOTHED(1, -1) < SMOOTHED(13, -10)) << 7) + ((SMOOTHED(-19, 14) < SMOOTHED(8, -14)) << 6) + ((SMOOTHED(-4, -13) < SMOOTHED(7, 1)) << 5) + ((SMOOTHED(1, -2) < SMOOTHED(12, -7)) << 4) + ((SMOOTHED(3, -5) < SMOOTHED(1, -5)) << 3) + ((SMOOTHED(-2, -2) < SMOOTHED(8, -10)) << 2) + ((SMOOTHED(2, 14) < SMOOTHED(8, 7)) << 1) + ((SMOOTHED(3, 9) < SMOOTHED(8, 2)) << 0));
#undef SMOOTHED

So each descriptor entry desc[i] is a uchar, where we set each of the 8 bits as the result of a simple comaprison SMOOTHED(x1,y1) < SMOOTHED(x2,y2).

Note that the descriptor computation does ignore the orientation of the keypoint!

FREAK descriptor

FREAK = Fast Retina Keypoint

Quite new descriptor by Alexandre Alahi

 
public/local_features.txt · Last modified: 2012/12/18 08:39 (external edit) · []
Recent changes RSS feed Powered by PHP Valid XHTML 1.0 Valid CSS Driven by DokuWiki